THIS IS NOT A BLOG YOU NEED TO RESPOND TO. RESPOND TO THE BLOG BELOW THIS ONE FOR YOUR HOMEWORK DUE TOMORROW WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 10. HOWEVER, SKIM OVER THIS TO HELP YOU BETTER UNDERSTAND CAESURA!
Caesuras are essentially nothing more than breaks in rhythm, thought, or syntax that occur anywhere between the beginning and end of a line. In other words, they’re the same as an end-stopped line except that the “end-stopping” occurs in the middle of the line. That said, they can be trickier to spot. They aren't associated with the end of a line and aren't always matched by punctuation.
Caesuras were a fixture of classical Greek and Latin poetry but Anglo Saxon was the language in which the Caesura came to glory.
So, if we were to lineate Sing a Song of Six-Pence as Beowulf’s author might have, it might look like this (caesuras marked):
Sing a song of sixpence, || a pocket full of rye.
Four and twenty blackbirds, || baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened, || the birds began to sing;
Wasn’t that a dainty dish, || to set before the king?
The king was in his counting house, || counting out his money;
The queen was in the parlour, || eating bread and honey.
The maid was in the garden, || hanging out the clothes;
When down came a blackbird || and pecked off her nose.
If you click the link to Leonard’s translation, you’ll see how this translates when applied to Beowulf. You might get an idea as to how the Anglo Saxons would have “heard” the great poem (and how the caesura was an integral part of the poem’s rhythm and structure). I always favor translations which try to capture, not just the sense, but the sound and structure of the original — something which is altogether too rare with the near total dominance of free verse.
The caesura’s importance to English poetry faded with the language’s modernization. Still, examples can be found. Wikipedia offers an example from the ballad Tom O’Bedlam. I’ll give another from the same poem (which you can read in its entirety in Harold Bloom’s book The Best Poems of the English Language: From Chaucer Through Frost):
When I short have shorn my sow’s face ·······And swigged my horny barrel,
At an oaken inn || I impound my skin ·······In a suit of gilt apparel.
The moon’s my constant mistress ·······And the lovely owl my marrow.
The flaming drake || and the night-crow make ·······Me music to my sorrow.
While I do sing || “Any food, any feeding ·······Feeding, drink or clothing?
Come dame or maid, || be not afraid: ·······Poor Tom will injure nothing.
Notice that only the final caesura coincides with any sort of punctuation. (Is the rhythm of the ballad a faint echo of the ancient Anglo Saxon poetry? Possibly.) The caesura, in the stanza above, indicate rhythmic pauses. Also, all of the caesuras would be masculine caesuras. They each occur after a stressed syllable. Here are the first two stanzas from Edgar Allen Poe’s The Raven.
Once upon a midnight dreary, || while I pondered weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious || volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, || suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, || rapping at my chamber door.
`’Tis some visitor,’ || I muttered, || `tapping at my chamber door -
Only this, and nothing more.’
Ah, distinctly I remember || it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember|| wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow; – || vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow – || sorrow for the lost Lenore -
For the rare and radiant maiden || whom the angels named Lenore -
Nameless here for evermore.
Once again, some of the caesura are marked by punctuation, some aren’t. Most native English speakers will instinctively pause mid-line, even without punctuation. The combination of the internal rhymes (dreary/weary, napping/tapping) and the trochaic meter encourages us to read the lines as bipartite. Normally, for example, one wouldn’t pause between curious and volume in the second line, but the poem’s rhyme and meter strongly encourage us to divide the line (if only to reinforce the rhythm of the others). Try it. See if you agree. Conversely, we want to read through pauses that we normally wouldn’t. For instance, the heavy mid-line caesuras make us want to ignore the syntactic breaks in the first stanza’s third, fifth and last line::
While I nodded, nearly napping…
… `’Tis some visitor,’ I muttered… Only this, and nothing more.
We might be more hard-pressed to ignore the natural break in ‘Tis some visitor,‘ I muttered…, but we could. In Poe’s poem, unlike Tom O’Bedlam, all the Caesura arefeminine caesuras because they each occur after unstressed syllables.